Complex PTSD as a Distinct Diagnostic Construct
Bryant, R. A. (2012). Simplifying Complex PTSD: Comment on Resick et al. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 25(3), 252-253. doi:10.1002/jts.21696
Cloitre, M., Garvert, D., Brewin, C., Bryant, R., & Maercker, A. (2013). Evidence for proposed ICD-11 PTSD and complex PTSD: a latent profile analysis. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 4.
Giourou E. et al. (2018). Complex posttraumatic stress disorder: The need to consolidate a distinct clinical syndrome or to reevaluate features of psychiatric disorders following interpersonal trauma? World J Psychiatry, 8(1), 12-19. Available: Not available online.
Goodman, M. (2012). Complex PTSD is on the trauma spectrum: Comment on Resick et al. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 25(3), 254-255.
Herman, J. (1992). Complex PTSD: A syndrome in survivors of prolonged and repeated trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 5(3).
Herman, J. (2012). CPTSD is a distinct entity: Comment on Resick et al. (2012). Journal of Traumatic Stress, 25(3), 256-257. doi:10.1002/jts.21697
Hyland, P., et al. (2017). An assessment of the construct validity of the ICD-11 proposal for Complex Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, And Policy, doi:10.1037/tra0000114
Karatzias, T, et al. (2017). Evidence of distinct profiles of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (CPTSD) based on the new ICD-11 Trauma Questionnaire (ICD-TQ), Journal of Affective Disorders, 207, 181-187. Available: Not available online.
Knefel, M., Garvert, D. W., Cloitre, M., & Lueger-Schuster, B. (2015). Update to an evaluation of ICD-11 PTSD and Complex PTSD criteria in a sample of adult survivors of childhood institutional abuse by Knefel & Lueger-Schuster (2013): A latent profile analysis. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 61-6. doi:10.3402/ejpt.v6.25290
Rosenthal, M., Reinhardt, K. & Birrell, P. (2016) Guest editorial: Deconstructing disorder: An ordered reaction to a disordered environment, Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 17(2), 131-137.
van der Kolk, B. A., Roth, S. & Pelcovitz, D. (2005). Disorders of extreme stress: The empirical foundation of a complex adaptation to trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18(5), 389-399.
Weiss, D. S. (2012). Introduction to the special feature on Complex PTSD. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 25(3), 239-240. doi:10.1002/jts.21711
Cloitre, M., Garvert, D. W., Weiss, B., Carlson, E. B., & Bryant, R. A. (2014). Distinguishing PTSD, Complex PTSD, and Borderline Personality Disorder: A latent class analysis. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 5(1), 25097
Cloitre, M., et al. (2009). A developmental approach to complex PTSD: Childhood and adult cumulative trauma as predictors of symptom complexity. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 22(5), 399-408.
Danese, A. & van Harmelen, A. (2017). The hidden wounds of childhood trauma, European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 8(7).
Elklit, A., Hyland, P., & Shevlin, M. (2014). Evidence of symptom profiles consistent with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Complex Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in different trauma samples. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 51(10). doi:10.3402/ejpt.v5.24221
Ford, J. D. & Courtois, C. A. (2014). Complex PTSD, affect dysregulation, and borderline personality disorder. Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation, 1(1), 9.
Landy, M. S., Wagner, A. C., Brown-Bowers, A., & Monson, C. M. (2015). Examining the evidence for complex posttraumatic stress disorder as a clinical diagnosis. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 24(3), 215-236.
Resick, P. et al. (2012). A critical evaluation of the Complex PTSD literature: Implications for DSM-5. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 25(3), 241-251.
Resick, P. et al. (2012). Advocacy through science: Reply to comments on Resick et al. (2012). Journal of Traumatic Stress, 25(3), 260-263. doi:10.1002/jts.21702
van der Hart, O., Nijenhuis, E. R., & Steele, K. (2005). Dissociation: An insufficiently recognized major feature of complex posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18(5), 413-423.
Physical & Psychological Co-Morbidities
Anda, R. et al. (2006). The enduring effects of abuse and related adverse experiences in childhood: A convergence of evidence from neurobiology and epidemiology. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 256(3), 174–186. Available: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3232061/
Boscarina, J. (2006). Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and physical illness: Results from clinical and epidemiologic studies, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Available: http://sci-hub.tw/10.1196/annals.1314.011
Brown, D., et al. (2009). Adverse childhood experiences and the risk of premature mortality, American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 37(5), 389-396. Available: http://sci-hub.tw/10.1016/j.amepre.2009.06.021
Kelly-Irving, M. et al. (2013). Adverse childhood experiences and premature all-cause mortality, European Journal of Epidemiology, 28. Available: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10654-013-9832-9
Lanius, R., Vermetten, E. & Pain, C. (Eds). (2010). The Impact of Early Life Trauma on Health and Disease: The Hidden Epidemic. Available: http://media.axon.es/pdf/92635_3.pdf
Middlebrooks, J. & Audage, M. (2008). The effects of childhood stress on health across the lifespan: Project report. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available: http://health-equity.lib.umd.edu/932/1/Childhood_Stress.pdf
Najavits, L. et al. (2017). The science of childhood trauma as a driver of chronic illnesses, CTIPP Science Notes (1), 1-4. Available: http://ctipp.org/Portals/0/xBlog/uploads/2017/8/11/CTIPP_SN_071817.pdf
Pace, T. & Heim, C. (2011). A short review on the psychoneuroimmunology of posttraumatic stress disorder: From risk factors to medical comorbidities, Brain, Behavior & Immunity, 25(1), 6-13. Available: http://sci-hub.tw/10.1016/j.bbi.2010.10.003
Schonkoff, J. et al. (2012). The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress, Pediatrics, 129(1). Available: http://sci-hub.tw/10.1542/peds.2011-2663
Schonkoff, J., Boyce, T. & McEwen, B. (2009). Neuroscience, molecular biology, and the childhood roots of health disparities: Building a new framework for health promotion and disease prevention, Psychiatry. Available: http://sci-hub.tw/10.1001/jama.2009.754
Dube, S. et al. (2002). Adverse childhood experiences and personal alcohol abuse as an adult, Addictive Behaviors, 27, 713-725. Available: http://sci-hub.tw/10.1016/s0306-4603(01)00204-0
Strine, T. et al. (2012). Associations between adverse childhood experiences, psychological distress, and adult alcohol problems, American Journal of Health Behavior, 36(3), 408-423. Available: http://sci-hub.tw/10.5993/ajhb.36.3.11
Autoimmune & Inflammatory Diseases/Illnesses
Danese, A. & McEwen, B. (2012). Adverse childhood experiences, allostasis, allostatic load, and age-related disease, Physiology & Behaviour, 106(1), 29-39. Available: http://sci-hub.tw/10.1016/j.physbeh.2011.08.019
Danese, A. Moffitt, T. & Harringtion, H. (2009). Adverse childhood experiences and adult risk factors for age-related disease, depression, inflammation, and clustering of metabolic risk markers, JAMA Pediatrics. Available: http://sci-hub.tw/10.1001/archpediatrics.2009.214
Dube, S. et al. (2009). Cumulative childhood stress and autoimmune diseases in adults, Psychosomatic Medicine, 71(2), 243-250. Available: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3318917/
Michopoulos, V., et al. (2016). Inflammation in Fear- and Anxiety-Based Disorders: PTSD, GAD, and Beyond, Neuropsychopharmacology. Available: http://sci-hub.tw/10.1038/npp.2016.146
Plantinga, M., et al. (2013). Association between posttraumatic stress disorder and inflammation: A twin study, BMC Medicine, 30, 125-130. Available: http://sci-hub.tw/10.1016/j.bbi.2013.01.081
Brown, M., Thacker, L. & Cohen, S. (2014). Association between adverse childhood experiences and diagnosis of cancer. PLOS ONE 9(1). Available: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0065524
Kelly-Irving, M. et al. (2013). The embodiment of adverse childhood experiences and cancer development: potential biological mechanisms and pathways across the life course, International Journal of Public Health, 58(1), 3-11. Available: http://sci-hub.tw/10.1007/s00038-012-0370-0
Bacon, L & Aphramor, L. (2011). Weight science: evaluating the evidence for a paradigm shift, Nutrition Journal, 10(9). Available: https://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1475-2891-10-9
Brewerton, T. (2007). Eating disorders, trauma, and comorbidity: Focus on PTSD, Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention, 15:4, 285-304. Available: http://sci-hub.tw/10.1080/10640260701454311
Briere, J. & Scott, C. (2007). Assessment of trauma symptoms in eating-disordered populations, The Journal of Treatment & Prevention, 15:4, 347-358. Available: http://sci-hub.tw/10.1080/10640260701454360
Farr, O., Sloane, D., Keane, T. & Mantozoros, C. (2014). Stress- and PTSD-associated obesity and metabolic dysfunction: A growing problem requiring further research and novel treatments, Metabolism, 63(12), 1463–1468. Available: http://sci-hub.tw/10.1016/j.metabol.2014.08.009
Masodkar, K., Johnson, J. & Peterson, M. (20`6). Review of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Obesity: Exploring the Link, The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders, 18(1). Available: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4874765/
Mason, S. et al., (2015). Child maltreatment’s heavy toll: The need for trauma-informed obesity prevention, American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Available: http://sci-hub.tw/10.1016/j.amepre.2015.11.004
Michopoulos, V. et al., (2015). The mediating role of emotion dysregulation and depression on the relationship between childhood trauma exposure and emotional eating, Appetite, 91, 129-136. Available: http://sci-hub.tw/10.1016/j.appet.2015.03.036
Palmisano, G., Innamorati, M. & Vanderlinden, J. (2016). Life adverse experiences in relation with obesity and binge eating disorder: A systematic review, Journal of Behavioral Addictions 5(1), 11-31. Available: http://sci-hub.tw/10.1556/2006.5.2016.018
Tagay, S., Schlottbohm, E., Reyes-Rodriguez, M., Repic, N. & Senf, W. (2014). Eating disorders, trauma, PTSD, and psychosocial resources, Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention, 22:1, 33-49. Available: http://sci-hub.tw/10.1080/10640266.2014.857517
Waller, G., Corstorphine, E. & Mountford, V. (2007). The role of emotional abuse in the eating disorders: Implications for treatment, Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention, 15:4, 317-331. Available:
Suicidality & Self-Harm
Dube, S. et al. (2001). Childhood abuse, household dysfunction, and the risk of attempted suicide throughout the life span: Findings from the Adverse Childhood Experiences Study, JAMA Network. Available: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/194504
Ford J. D. & Gómez, J. (2015) The relationship of psychological trauma and dissociative and posttraumatic stress disorders to nonsuicidal self-Injury and suicidality: A review. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 16(3), 232-271
Assessment and Treatment
Cloitre, M., Courtois, C., Ford, J. Green, B., Alexander, P., Briere, J., Herman, J. Lanius, R., Pearlman, L., Stolbach, B., Spinazzola, J. & van der Hart, O. (2012). ISTSS expert consensus treatment guidelines for Complex PTSD in adults. International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Courtois, C. A. (2008). Complex trauma, complex reactions: Assessment and treatment. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, S(1), 86–100.
de Arellano, M. A., Ko, S. J., Danielson, C. K. & Sprague, C. M. (2008). Trauma-informed interventions: Clinical and research evidence and culture-specific information project. Los Angeles, CA & Durham, NC: National Center for Child Traumatic Stress.
Ford, J. D. (2015). Complex PTSD: Research directions for nosology/assessment, treatment, and public health. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 6(1), 27584.
Gómez, J., Lewis, J., Noll, L., Smidt, A. & Birrell, P. (2015) Shifting the focus: Nonpathologizing approaches to healing from betrayal trauma through an emphasis on relational care, Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 17(2), 165-185.
Grossman, F., Spinazzola, J., Zucker, M. & Hopper, E. (2017). Treating adult survivors of childhood emotional abuse and neglect: A new framework. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 87(1), 86–93.
Heide, F. J. J. T., Mooren, T. M., & Kleber, R. J. (2016). Complex PTSD and phased treatment in refugees: A debate piece. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 7(1), 28687
Jongh, A., Resick, P. A., Zoellner, L. A., Minnen, A., Lee, C. W., Monson, C. M., ... & Rauch, S. A. (2016). Critical analysis of the current treatment guidelines for complex PTSD in adults. Depression and Anxiety, 33(5), 359-369.
Krammer, S., Kleim, B., Simmen-Janevska, K., & Maercker, A. (2016). Childhood trauma and complex posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in older adults: a study of direct effects and social-interpersonal factors as potential mediators. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 17(5), 593-607.
Rosenthal, M., Reinhardt, K. & Birrell, P. (2016). Deconstructing disorder: An ordered reaction to a disordered environment, Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 17(2), 131-137.
Tarocchi, A., Aschieri, F., Fantini, F. & Smith, J. (2013). Therapeutic assessment of complex trauma: A single-case time-series study. Clinical Case Studies, 12(3).
van der Kolk, B. A. (2002). The assessment and treatment of complex PTSD. Treating trauma survivors with PTSD, 127-156.
Digitale, E. (2016). Traumatic stress changes brains of boys, girls differently. Stanford Medicine News Centre
Haskell, L. & Randall, M. (2009). Disrupted attachments: A social context complex trauma framework and the lives of Aboriginal Peoples in Canada. Journal of Aboriginal Health.
Powers, A., Fani, N., Carter, S., Cross, D., Cloitre, M., & Bradley, B. (2017). Differential predictors of DSM-5 PTSD and ICD-11 complex PTSD among African American women. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 8(1).
Söchting, I., Corrado, R., Cohen, I., Ley, R. & Brasfield, C. (2007). Traumatic pasts in Canadian Aboriginal people: Further support for a Complex Trauma conceptualization? British Columbia Medical Journal, 49(6), 320-326.
Research Conducted at OOTS
- February 2018 - Supportive Relationships and Growth/Success After Childhood Trauma. Naydine Johney, doctoral candidate in the Department of Clinical Psychology at the Antioch University in New England, USA..
- September 2017 - Trauma Survivors and the Effects of Being Misdiagnosed, Lisa Henshaw, doctoral candidate in the School of Social Work, Adelphi University, Garden City, New York, USA.
- June 2017 - Couples Therapy and Survivors of Traumatic Experiences. Eric Mortensen, University of Saint Thomas Graduate School of Professional Psychology, Minnesota, USA.
- January 2017
- it's Not Just About Support: Self-directed Learning in an Online Self-help Group [for Complex PTSD], Dr. Rita Kop & Dr. XXX, Yorkville University, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada.
- Childhood Trauma and Post Natal Depression, Dr. Mark Doyle, Solent University, Southampton, United Kingdom.